Movimento Libertario

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The terms Libertarian Movement (Movimento Libertario in Italian, acronym ML) are used here to refer to a political party and a cultural movement organisation based in Italy characterized by a libertarian cultural and political platform: minimal regulation of Italian society, liberism of the markets, strong defense of natural rights of liberty and property, non-interventionism in foreign policy, and laissez-faire freedom of trade and travel to all foreign countries.

History

Foundation

The Movimento Libertario was originally only an Italian cultural association for the dissemination of libertarianism.

As a cultural association, the Movimento Libertario began on September 24, 2005, in Treviglio with the writing of the "Manifesto and Constitution of the Movimento Libertario" by Leonardo Facco[1].

The Movimento Libertario became also an Italian political subject when it is officially founded in September 2007 by Leonardo Facco, Giorgio Fidenato and Marcello Mazzilli[2], in order to defend life, liberty and property of each individual within a strong liberist system of free market, against any kind of aggression and/or coercion.[3]

The Association has its registered office in the Municipality of Pordenone[3].

Symbol

The Movimento Libertario has as its symbol a round disk with a yellow-gold background in reference to the gold standard and also to its membership in the anarcho-capitalist movement.

The symbol is part of the assets of the Association[3].

Inside the top are the words in Italian (in black color) "Proprietà" and "Libertà", and are references to natural rights believed essential by libertarians.

In the center of the disk, the symbol of the movement, is a stylized image of a black crossbow.

The weapon is an homage to nearby Switzerland and in particular to legendary William Tell, as a symbol of fiscal rebellion for federalist political autonomy and independence of people.

Below the image appears the written "Movimento Libertario"; the terms are used in reference to political entity but also to define the nature of individual human action (Movimento) and to define, in broad sense, those theories which give primacy to individual choice before the claims of any political power (Libertario).

The question on the term Libertario for the Italian Libertarianism

The terms movimento libertario (libertarian movement in English) in Italian language has a dual meanings.

Historically, first generally refers to the Italian anarchism and European anarchist movements (libertarism) with a marxian and social anarchist ispirations.[4]

The anarchist socialist tradition use the term libertario to describe themselves and their ideas since 1857.

The French anarchist communist Joseph Déjacque employed the term libertario in a political sense in an open letter criticizing Pierre-Joseph Proudhon.[5][6]

Déjacque said Proudhon was "libéral et non LIBERTAIRE", that is, the neologism was coined specifically as a distinction from the classical liberalism that Proudhon advocated in relation to economic exchange, in contrast to the more libertarian communist approach advocated by Déjacque.[5][7]

From 1858 until 1861 Déjacque published in New York a journal called Le Libertaire: Journal du Mouvement Social.[8][9]

Since the 1890s the term "libertarianism" has often been used as a synonym for left wing anarchism or libertarian socialism,[8] and exclusively so until the 1950s in the United States.[10][11][12]

In the '60s of XX century, Italian jurist and philosophy classic liberal, Bruno Leoni[13], introduced in Italy, American libertarianism concepts of natural right and ideology of private property (propertarianism) based on theorizations of Murray Newton Rothbard book Man, Economy, and State.

In 1961, Leoni wrote his book Freedom and the Law[14] in English, result of lectures in California in 1958.

In this work he points out the importance of the historical law (Roman jus civile and English Common law) and he is very critical towards modern legislation and the idea that law can be the simple outcome of a political decision.

Reflections on the law of Leoni, including criticism of Hans Kelsen, help to better understand the extraordinary potential of the Austrian School of Social Sciences, which originated with Carl Menger, Ludwig von Mises, Friedrich von Hayek[15] and Murray N. Rothbard.[16]

Using the juridical methodological individualism, the analysis of institutions and the evolutionary origin of subjective value theory, Leoni has shown that not only the economy but the entire reflection on society can benefit greatly from the basic teachings of the Austrian school.

Leoni did not introduced the term libertarianism in Italy but only the concepts of this political theory that advocates the maximization of individual liberty in thought and action[17][18] and the minimization or even abolition of the state.[19][20]

So these concepts strongly anti-state and against monopolism (see especially the essay Mito e realtà dei monopoli, 1965), have been interpreted by many Italians observers and intellectuals critics as a subspecies of Italian anarchism (libertarism).[21]

In 1978 the French economist Henri Lepage with his book Demain le Capitalisme (Capitalism Tomorrow) based on an overview of the new libertarian thinkers, introduced in Europe the term libertarianism with the obvious intention to avoid misunderstandings; but after a decade of use of the Italian term libertario in reference to the concepts and principles of libertarianism, the libertarian ideas became famous under the name of libertarism.

So the meaning of the term libertario coexists in Italy with the traditional collectivist anarchism but also with the Anglo-Saxon meaning of libertarianism free market philosophy.

Italians libertarians of the Movimento Libertario use the Italian anarchic term libertario not to refer to European ideas and methods of traditional anarchism, but to refer to the concepts of principles of market liberalism.

They want also to remark and increase the cultural distance from Italian and European conception of liberalism, that in the XX century appeared as democratic liberalism forms of statism.

Italians libertarians of the ML are often prefer to define themselves as libertarians libertari but with adjective connotative of anarcho-capitalists, to distinguish themselves as pro-market supporters from the libertarians socialists or the traditionals anarchists.

It is prefers to use in the Italian anarchist context the indicative categories of anarcho-capitalism (as right anarchism) and anarcho-communist (as left anarchism) to indicate and clearly distinguish respectively the different anarchist school of thought with Rothbardian inspiration on market and property (like the ML) from the communist inspired groups.

Difference on concept of anarchy in the libertarian anarcho-capitalism from the others forms of anarchism

Anarcho-capitalism uses the following terms in ways that may differ from common usage or various anarchist movements.

  • Anarchism: any philosophy that opposes all forms of initiatory coercion (includes opposition to the State)
  • Contract: a voluntary binding agreement between persons
  • Coercion: physical force or threat of such against persons or property
  • Capitalism: economic system where the means of production are privately owned, and where investments, production, distribution, income, and prices are determined through the operation of a free market rather than by government
  • Free market: a market where all decisions regarding transfer of money, goods (including capital goods), and services are voluntary
  • Fraud: inducing one to part with something of value through the use of dishonesty
  • State: an organization that taxes and engages in regularized and institutionalized aggressive coercion
  • Voluntary: any action not influenced by coercion or fraud perpetrated by any human agency

The American libertarianism, whether in the anarcho-capitalist form that in its various meanings attributable, claims its presence in the vision of anarchism, although this comes especially from classical liberalism carried to its extreme and radical considerations.[22]

The anarchism in the anarcho-capitalism philosophy is a nonviolent form, that derives to the purpose of eliminate the State to realize a free market anarchism as voluntary society, it is not an end in itself unlike of the European anarchism traditional array, but rather the natural consequence of opposition to the statism.

Anarcho-capitalism is an individualist anarchism[23] political philosophy that advocates the elimination of the Sovereign state and the elevation of the sovereign individual in a free market.

Traditional and collectivists Italian anarchists, they judge the ML as not a real anarchist movement, but they think that rather is a ploy of the classic liberal elite and middle class to increase social inequality.

They also consider that the term libertario or at least inappropriate for the nature of the movement within the Italian historical context.[22].

The members of the Movimento Libertario rejects the manipolation of their identity and image by traditional and collectivist anarchists, and claim for themselves the correctness of the use of the definition of Italian anarchist libertarian (libertari), stressing their opposition to the use of bombs and violence by the insurrectionary anarchism.

The criticism to the anarcho-collectivism about the future perspective of society

If in Italy, the anarchism considers also the anarcho-capitalism as movement that tend to want to keep the rules without state, in turn the anarcho-capitalism considers acceptable only the rules that derives from natural rights.

The anarcho-capitalism libertarian criticizes the anarchism and collectivist anarchism, because they tends to focus without consistency on the objectives anti-statists, they both believe that a spontaneous order based on market competition and exchange is impossible.[24]

According to the anarchocapitalist, the traditional anarchism tends only to develop itself as an ultimate violent goal, they interpret the concept of anarchy as synonymous of anomie without rules, scaring the people with the violence.

The term anarcho-capitalism was most likely coined in 1968 by Jarrett Wollstein and revived by economist Murray Rothbard.[25][26] Rothbard used the term anarcho-capitalism to distinguish his philosophy from anarchism that opposes private property,[27] as well as to distinguish it from other forms of individualist anarchism.[28] Other terms sometimes used for this philosophy, though not necessarily outside anarcho-capitalist circles, include:

  • anti-state capitalism
  • anti-state marketism
  • anarcho-liberalism[29]
  • capitalist anarchism
  • market anarchism
  • free market anarchism
  • individualist anarchism[30]
  • natural order[31]
  • ordered anarchy[31]
  • polycentric law
  • the private-law society[31]
  • private-property anarchy[31]
  • pure capitalism
  • radical capitalism[31]
  • stateless capitalism
  • stateless society
  • stateless liberalism
  • voluntaryism

Traditional social anarchists are incapable of understanding the natural dynamics of free market economy choice and the difference with the corporative state economy, the anarcho-communism don't defend the freedom of choice through the abolition of property with the individual subordination to the community.

The Movimento Libertario believes that only the anarcho-capitalist option, based on private property and respect for natural rights, is a prerequisited for a future peaceful free-market society without a state in Italy.

The functions now performed by the Welfare State should return to free associations, community and voluntary philanthropic spirit.

In an anarcho-capitalist society, law enforcement, courts, and all other security services would be provided by voluntarily-funded competitors such as private defense agencies rather than through taxation, and money would be privately and competitively provided in an open market.

According to anarcho-capitalists, personal and economic activities would be regulated by the natural laws of the market and through private law rather than through politics.

Promoting a common framework of action and shared principles, does not mean that reality to must to be necessarily only a utilitarian development anarcho-capitalist model strictly, or necessarily a teleological-purposive as an anarcho-capitalist identity in terms of principal presence.

It is possible that within the general context of acceptance of property rights, free trade and non-aggression axiom between individuals, can be formed on the territory other future models related to different forms of social-economic libertarian perspectives in peaceful competition with each others.[32]

Although it is highly doubtful that these future models of alternative development they can lead wealth and prosperity if will miss the awareness of an underlying future recognition about the respect of principles between people of enclaves.

Anarcho-capitalist libertarians believe that the only just, and/or most economically-beneficial, way to acquire property is through voluntary trade, gift, or labor-based original appropriation, rather than through aggression or fraud.[33]

The Movimento Libertario want to match the prospective of context anarcho-capitalist the possible realizations of similar alternative developments.

Cultural diffusion

Movimento Libertario, as cultural association intends to be an Italian promoter of the spread of classical liberalism and libertarian vision in policy, free market and economic liberalism in economy.[34].

The motto is: "Everyone is free to do what he thinks is right for himself, without attacking anyone, and without attacking the property rights of others".

The movement's members believe that policy is especially spread of freedom as economic freedom culture: meetings, debates, on the web, and with conferences and publications [1]

Inspiration

Movimento Libertario is politically inspired by the classical liberalism of John Locke and the Founding Fathers of the United States conjugated to nineteenth-century American individualist anarchist strand of Benjamin Tucker, Henry David Thoreau and Lysander Spooner.[35][36]

In economy it is inspired on lessons of the Austrian school and in particular to the theoric formulation of the philosopher and economist libertarian anarcho-capitalist Murray N. Rothbard.[37][16][36]

The actions in favor of tax resistance, free entrepreneurship and political non-voting also recall the agorist reflections by Samuel Edward Konkin III[38] although the Movimento Libertario not officially identify itself in programmatic positions and spectrum of the American left-libertarians.

Movimento Libertario also includes some aspects from the American model of liberty theorized by Robert Nozick (minarchism) and the Objectivism phylosophy described in novels by Ayn Rand.[36][39][40]

The Movimento Libertario refers to freedom of association of the anarchic federalism, anarcho-capitalist free market society and to the Jeffersonian limited government of classical liberalism.

The term "federalism" as it is used by the Movimento Libertario, in a sense to be in favor of a political of decentralization and for a real local fiscality against the centralism of the national Italian State[41].

It is not used to mean the increase of central power.

The Movimento Libertario is an anti-federalist organization about the Europe, it is against the federal European Union government, preferring the voluntary accession and the unanimity of a Confederation.

Historians Italian thinkers of reference for the Movimento Libertario in economy and policy include Ferdinando Galiani, Cesare Beccaria[42], Paolo Balsamo, Filippo Mazzei[43][44], Emerico Amari, Francesco Ferrara, Giuseppe Todde, Giovanni Pinna Ferrà, Tullio Martello, Carlo Cattaneo, Edoardo Giretti, Gaetano Mosca, Vilfredo Pareto, Luigi Einaudi, Bruno Leoni, Gianfranco Miglio[45] and Sergio Ricossa.

Publications

Leonardo Facco, thanks to the encounter with the most important Italian libertarian thinkers (Carlo Lottieri, Alberto Mingardi, Carlo Stagnaro, Guglielmo Piombini, Nicola Iannello)[46] founded in 1996 in Treviglio the Leonardo Facco Editore an independent publishing house.

It works to spread the concepts about the defense of liberty, property and people's lives that they are threatened daily by the actions of states, governments and public authorities.

The published books dealing history, sociology, political science and issues related the ecology of the market.

The Movimento Libertario through to the Leonardo Facco Editore periodically publish two magazines: I Fogli di Enclave and the magazine Enclave which give space to various political issues, cultural, social and economic libertarians Italian and international.[16].

I Fogli di Enclave[47] is a free bimonthly publication, while the magazine Enclave is a quarterly magazine founded in March 1998, available by subscription.

The Movimento Libertario is actively working through the magazine Enclave with Italian free market members of Bruno Leoni Institute [1][16]: Alberto Mingardi (co-editor), Carlo Stagnaro (co-director) and Carlo Lottieri (Scientific Committee).

In Scientific Committee of Enclave magazine belong also: Walter Block, David D. Friedman, Raimondo Cubeddu, Romano Bracalini, Hans Hermann Hoppe, John Hospers, Antonio Martino, Nicola Jannello, David B. Kopel, Pierre Lemieux, Tibor R. Machan, Jan Narveson, Wendy McElroy, Guglielmo Piombini, Ralph Raico, Alberto Pasolini Zanelli, Sergio Ricossa, Robert Sirico, Thomas S. Szasz, Alessandro Vitale.

The Movimento Libertario collaborates actively with the members of Swiss Liberist Party of Canton Ticino and their Association (ALT), in cultural and economic free market iniziatives (conferences and publications like I Fogli di Enclave) between libertarians subjects in Italy and Canton Ticino.

In January 2010, Leonardo Facco, announced the intention to delegate ownership of his publishing company to the Movimento Libertario, in order to promote the continuity in the future of the activities of the movement by ensuring private self-financing through the sale of books and content published.

Platform

Respecting the historical definition of libertarian, unlike to the Libertarian Party, the Movimento Libertario want bring in Italy the same contents of others libertarians parties and movements in the world but with the agorist practice of non-voting[48], thus not directly participating in political Italian elections with the symbol of the Movimento Libertario [1][3].

Although in fact the Movimento Libertario is an officially registered Italian political party, as anti-statist movement disclaims the State legality and its political elections.

As a formal Italian political party it may decide to participate in the Italian political competition (at different levels) supporting from the outside its candidates through civic lists, or support the claims of parties close to its cultural vision in order to make its voice and disseminate ideas [3].

The Movimento Libertario is not classifiable in the political-ideologic traditions of the twentieth century presents in Italy.

Like other libertarians entities in the world, the subject respects the political spectrum of Nolan Chart.

One of its slogans said: "Neither right nor left, nor centrist. Simply free is better".

Spectrum internal libertarianism

The Movimento Libertario is formally neutral as libertarian ideology, with an anarcho-capitalist vision, a voluntaryist organization and an agorist practices as characteristics.

Unlike the United States, in Italy and in the Movimento Libertario there are not internal controversies among the identity of libertarian term between libertarians members or a clear distinction between the right libertarian (paleolibertarian and libertarian conservatives) members and left libertarians (the latter understood in their sense of American left libertarians Rothbardian like agorist, panarchist not to the European libertarian socialists) because the libertarian schools no presents so significant differences in their common anti-state vision.

Moreover, these libertarian schools are not rooted in Italy if not with some representative members in the Movimento Libertario.

The Movimento Libertario considers crucial to encourage what is common and unites all the various libertarian orientations, seeking to promote the protection of private property, free market and the natural law through actions and non-violent and peaceful means.

Structure and membership

The bodies of internal administration include the Managing Director, Board of Directors (B.o. D.), Assembly of Members (Meeting of Shareholders), Groups of Territorial Association (clans)[49], Board of Auditors, and the Enclave of Essays.

The Statute of the Movimento Libertario[3] describes and regulates all bodies of internal administration and their function.

Leonardo Facco co-founder of the Association, represents from 2007 till 2011 (in according to the statute and to the internal democracy of members of Association) the role of Managing Director of the Movimento Libertario.

He represents the Movimento Libertario in their official activity.

The Movimento Libertario is organized by a system of free participation of shareholders, registered members, and sympathizers on the Italian territory.[50][51]

Any adult who registers and pays a participation fee becomes a shareholder member of the movement and therefore acquired the right to vote and actively participate to the meetings of internal bodies.

Minors, even if authorized by a single parent, may be enrolled only as members sympathizers with no rights to vote.

Principles

Movimento Libertario in its founding act declares and acknowledges libertarian principles as internals to its Statute[3]:

  • The Freedom, understood as the absence of constraint is a natural right of the individual, which nobody (private or public organization) must threaten;
  • The Government, in its various variants, forces people to obey blindly and accept legislation invasive and oppressive monopoly;
  • Everyone has the right to seek their own happiness and that of his loved ones, taking responsibility for their actions;
  • Each individual is entitled organize in freedom themselves to protect their lives and their belongings, particularly given the enormous difficulties posed by the power of politicians at all levels;
  • The need to eliminate and reduce the state, politicians and bureaucracies in the everyday life, increasingly recognizing the dignity of all people working really, producing their own resources and possessions.
  • The Property is a natural and inalienable right of man, is primarily the property of themselves, of the own bodies and of one's life.

It can not be granted or denied by any social system, whether democratic or authoritarian.

Property also means all that belongs to the person and that is not the result of an act of violence, but by the work of the person, the acquisition and transformation of the state of nature and with free interaction of individuals[1].

Purpose

The Movimento Libertario, as political movement, is founded with the aim of reducing government to its lowest terms, in order to provide space for free interaction between individuals, or community consensus of individuals, who seek redress of their market needs [1][34].

Every member is said to have a moral duty to liberate the forces of civil society and free trade, eliminating any form of intervention in defense of individual liberties [52].

The Movimento Libertario Statute[3] considers necessary for Italy:

  • The return to full and effective individual sovereignty over their lives and their belongings, which belongs to the natural right to govern themselves through non-violent methods of coercion or by exercising the right to self-determination is that the sacred principles of resistance and opposition to any kind of tax;
  • The rights of the individual nature of a right of ownership of their bodies and their belongings held lawfully, in fulfillment of the Rothbardian Non-aggression axiom:

"I define anarchist society as one where there is no legal possibility for coercive aggression against the person or property of any individual. Anarchists oppose the State because it has its very being in such aggression, namely, the expropriation of private property through taxation, the coercive exclusion of other providers of defense service from its territory, and all of the other depredations and coercions that are built upon these twin foci of invasions of individual rights." - Murray Newton Rothbard in Society and State


As is registered in its name, the Movimento Libertario wants promote in the Italian civil society the natural rights to life, liberty, property and the pursuit of happiness.

Each share of the Movimento, which would achieve the above purposes, is based on the principle of non-violence: "no one can attack the person and the property of others"[1].

Political positions

Economy

Supports the abolition of taxation in all forms and it is against regulation of free trade, including tariffs, price controls, coercive insurance, and production quotas.

An intermediate target on which to engage is the institutionalization of a flat tax whose rate is as low as possible (for example 22%) and one or more, no-tax area.[53]

The Movimento Libertario is an Eurosceptic movement, critical of the Euro and the presence of a European common economic monetary policy represented and direct by the European Central Bank and the European Commission.[53]

It is in favor of a return to the gold standard and to a free banking system.[53]

Does not recognize the legality and legitimacy of the WTO, IMF, World Bank because they are statist organizations contrary to the principles of non-interference of governments in a free market economy.

The Movimento Libertario is in favour of free market capitalism, supports market liberalization and deregulation, it also supports privatization of State economy sector (state monopoly capitalism).

It is against statism and protectionism, rejects public and private mixed economies, opposed to marxian communism, fascist economic planning (corporativism) and keynesians socialists interventions in economy by the State (state capitalism) and politics.

Believes work can not be regarded either as a right nor a duty, but only as a free choice of the individual, and as such, the work should not be subject to collective agreements or limited by rules.

The collective agreement is deemed unconstitutional.[53]

It is in favor of the abolition of professional orders of state; is not contrary to private professional orders and supports their spontaneous formation, but feel the problem arises from the institutionalization of professional orders of state and the choice of these same associations to act as a single party monopoly.

Accession to the orders should not be imposed by law.[53]

Supports the abolition of all business licenses; no price controls, balances, and no limitation in the initiation of new activities (such as limitations on the area or otherwise) may be exercised by the state and its territorial authorities.[1]

The Movimento Libertario recognizes the need for an emphasis on clarity of information to the public on the free choice of consumers.[53]

Foreign policy

The vision of the Movimento Libertario is an international foreign policy of nonintervention and non-violence like proposed by candidate for President of the United States in 2008, libertarian-republican Congressman Ron Paul[54].

The movement is against any increase in military spending or strengthening of armaments by the Italian State, even within the NATO, considered a military structure no longer necessary, and outside the context of the original defensive operations; it is against any forms of war, violent conflict or international interventions on foreign soil by Italian troops in line with the Rothbardian axiom of nonaggression [1][53];

The legality and legitimacy of the United Nations is questioned because this international organisation is contrary to the principle of a world without the presence of the State.

The European Union is considered a bureaucratic organization for the European Big Government, with the aim to reduce the free economy and the organization of the territory through central control.

The Lisbon Treaty adoption is not supported but the movement is not theoretically against the possible realization of a referendum for the free choice of Italians.

The movement supports individual and territorial separatism and indipendentism, the right of free self-determination of peoples and recognizing areas (enclave) within a framework of regional political autonomy within a loose opening of trade between regions [53].

Switzerland is considered an important model of confederative system both for the good economy development that for balanced policy organization of the territory.[55]

Security

The Movimento Libertario favors the reduction of telephone tapping and registration requirement for the list of suspects intercepted, localization of security forces (more power to the municipal police as opposed to a reduction of the national police), supports experiments in privatization of police (without internal interferences of any Italian political party) in small towns, the strengthening the function of the justice of the peace and introduction of arbitration, and recognition and guarantee of the right to possess arms in defense of private property and life of each individual[53]

Civil Rights

Movimento Libertario favors the freedom of choice of individuals within the natural rights of property (negative rights) and liberty (negative liberty) a is to agree to recognize responsibility for personal actions and not to delegate to others their own choices, or do so in an informed way.[1][53]

The movement supports a depenalization of light drugs (such as cannabis); supports the individual right to prostitution and abortion.[53]

The movement is contrary to any form of restriction of freedom, control or censorship by the state, the imposition of coercive state abortion, the financing of every kind of marriage by the state[56], and the prohibition of drugs, alcohol and smoking [53].

Education

The Movimento Libertario is favorable to the homeschooling and to freedom of teaching and choice.

Health

The Movimento Libertario is favorable to the creation of a pattern of private health care.

This is to avoid the justification for state control over private behavior motivated by the fact that the state spends money on health [53].

Science

Movimento Libertario favors the free cultivation and the free marketing of seeds and GMO foods and no limits to GMOs in Italy, consumer freedom to choose their own products[53], and freedom of private scientific research as long as it respect the natural human rights and it does not use public money.

Movimento Libertario does not support the theory of global warming.

Speech

The Movimento Libertario favors the right to freedom of speech and freedom of the networks and media [53].

The movement is against public funding of political parties, newspapers and denominational schools, and Italian public television paid for through taxes[57][58].

Activities

Interlibertarians

See Interlibertarians

See also


References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Leonardo Facco. "Manifesto and Constitution of the Movimento Libertario", Treviglio, September 24, 2005
  2. The libertarian way to happiness L'Opinione, by Elisa Borghi. Retrieved on May 18, 2007. Interview to Marcello Mazzilli spokesman of the Movimento Libertario.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Leonardo Facco, Giorgio Fidenato, Marcello Mazzilli "Statute of the Movimento Libertario", Treviglio, September 2007
  4. Template:Cite book
  5. 5.0 5.1 Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas - Volume One: From Anarchy to Anarchism (300CE-1939)], ed. Robert Graham; includes English translations of Joseph Dejacque’s 1857 letter to Proudhon.
  6. “De l'être-humain mâle et femelle–Lettre à P.J. Proudhon par Joseph Déjacque” (in French)
  7. Pelosse, Valentin (1972). Joseph Déjacque and the Neologism Libertarian
  8. 8.0 8.1 Le Libertaire—all editions online
  9. Template:Cite book
  10. Template:Cite journal
  11. Colin Ward, Anarchism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 62. "For a century, anarchists have used the word 'libertarian' as a synonym for 'anarchist', both as a noun and an adjective. The celebrated anarchist journal Le Libertaire was founded in 1896. However, much more recently the word has been appropriated by various American free-market philosophers..."
    • Goodway, David. Anarchists Seed Beneath the Snow. Liverpool Press. 2006, p. 4
    • MacDonald, Dwight & Wreszin, Michael. Interviews with Dwight Macdonald. University Press of Mississippi, 2003. p. 82
    • Gay, Kathlyn. Encyclopedia of Political Anarchy. ABC-CLIO / University of Michigan, 2006, p. 126
    • Woodcock, George. Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements. Broadview Press, 2004. (Uses the terms interchangeably, such as on page 10)
  12. Antonio Masala, Il liberalismo di Bruno Leoni, Soveria Mannelli, Rubbettino, 2003.
  13. Bruno Leoni, Freedom and the Law, New York, Nostrand, 1961
  14. Carlo Lottieri, Bruno Leoni e l'ombra di Hayek. Libertà individuale, common law e Stato moderno, in Antonio Masala, a cura di, La teoria politica di Bruno Leoni, Soveria Mannelli, Rubbettino, 2005, p. 158.
  15. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 The legacy of the Austrian School l'Opinione, by William Longhi. Retrived on April 29, 2004.
  16. Definition of libertarianism in Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  17. Template:Cite encyclopedia
  18. Professor Brian Martin, Eliminating state crime by abolishing the state; Murray Rothbard, Do You Hate the State?, The Libertarian Forum, Vol. 10, No. 7, July 1977; What Libertarianism Isn't; A Libertarian Cheat Sheet by Wilton D. Alston; Murrary Rothbard, Myth and Truth About Libertarianism.
  19. Sciabarra, Chris Mathew. Total Freedom: Toward a Dialectical Libertarianism, Penn State Press, 2000, p. 193.
  20. Carlo Lottieri, Le ragioni del diritto. Libertà individuale e ordine giuridico nel pensiero di Bruno Leoni, Soveria Mannelli, Rubbettino, 2006.
  21. 22.0 22.1 Norman P. Barry, Del liberalismo classico e del libertarianismo, ELiDiR , Roma, 1993
  22. Adams, Ian. 2002. Political Ideology Today. p. 135. Manchester University Press; Ostergaard, Geoffrey. 2003. Anarchism. In W. Outwaite (Ed.), The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought. p. 14. Blackwell Publishing
  23. Anarcho-capitalism against anarcho-national-communism Enclave n°15, 2001, by Guglielmo Piombini. Retrived on May 8, 2010. Archived from http://www.movimentolibertario.it/
  24. "Interview With Samuel Edward Konkin III". http://www.spaz.org/~dan/individualist-anarchist/software/konkin-interview.html. 
  25. Rothbard, Murray N. (1988) "What's Wrong with Liberty Poll; or, How I Became a Libertarian", Liberty, July 1988, p.53
  26. libertarianism. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 30 July 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  27. Murray Newton Rothbard Egalitarianism As A Revolt Against Nature And Other Essays: and other essays. Ludwig von Mises Institute, 2000. p.207
  28. Andrew Rutten. "Can Anarchy Save Us from Leviathan?" in The Independent Review vol. 3 nr. 4 p. 581. Scholar.Google.com, Independant.org "He claims that the only consistent liberal is an anarcho-liberal."
  29. "Murray N. Rothbard (1926–1995), American economist, historian, and individualist anarchist." Avrich, Paul. Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America, Abridged Paperback Edition (1996), p. 282 "Although there are many honorable exceptions who still embrace the "socialist" label, most people who call themselves individualist anarchists today are followers of Murray Rothbard's Austrian economics, and have abandoned the labor theory of value." Carson, Kevin. Mutualist Political Economy, Preface.
  30. 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4 Hoppe, Hans-Hermann (2001)"Anarcho-Capitalism: An Annotated Bibliography" Retrieved 23 May 2005
  31. Friedman, David D. The Machinery of Freedom. Chapter 42
  32. Avrich, Paul. Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America, Abridged Paperback Edition (1996), p. 282
  33. 34.0 34.1 Leonardo Facco. "Movimento Libertario: About Us". June 6, 2009.
  34. Paolo Zanotto, Il Movimento Libertario americano dagli anni sessanta ad oggi: radici storico-dottrinali e discriminanti ideologico-politiche, Siena, Università degli Studi di Siena, 2001. Archived from http://www.unisi.it
  35. 36.0 36.1 36.2 The political theory of libertarian political, cultural and economic references of the Movimento Libertario
  36. Crisis: When we explain how things were by Board of Directors of ML. Retrived on May 25, 2010.
  37. Konkin and the agorism by Samuel Edward Konkin III. Retrived on January 23, 2009. Introduction to the Agorist Class Theory. Archived from New Libertarian Notes #28, December 1973.
  38. Ayn Rand, the most widely read in times of bailout by Michael Shermer. Retrived on October 22, 2009. Archived from http://www.brunoleoni.it
  39. Ayn Rand "Diva" of the American tv? Retrived on December 29, 2009.
  40. Electoral Finance Act Il centro by Leonardo Facco. page 10. Retrieved on October 5, 2005. A comment by Leonardo Facco about proposals for fiscal federalism in Italy
  41. The free possession of weapons and Cesare Beccaria! by Leonardo Facco. Retrived on May 8, 2010.
  42. Starts the libertarian Tuscan clan by Leonardo Butini. Retrived on April 6, 2008.
  43. Filippo Mazzei, a true liberal by Retrived on June 28, 2008.
  44. Freedom of poor Europe! by Gianfranco Miglio. Retrived on May 29, 2010.
  45. Nicola Iannello, Il libertarianism: saggio bibliografico, in Etica & Politica, 2, 2003. Arcived from http://www.univ.trieste.it
  46. What and where L'Opinione. Article on free magazine I Fogli di Enclave. Retrieved on May 10, 2008.
  47. Classic liberals at the polls: what to do? L'Opinione, by Gustavo Cevolani. Retrieved on April 10, 2008.
  48. Movimento Libertario Clan libertarians Italian map of the presence of local clan supporters ML.
  49. Membership 2010!. We count on you! Retrived on December 31, 2009.
  50. Libertarians are not born, they become! by Board of Directors of the Movimento Libertario. Retrived on May 23, 2010.
  51. Leonardo Facco. "Political Program of the Movimento Libertario"
  52. 53.00 53.01 53.02 53.03 53.04 53.05 53.06 53.07 53.08 53.09 53.10 53.11 53.12 53.13 53.14 Leonardo Facco. " Appendix to Manifesto Libertario", 2005.
  53. Movimento Libertario Who is Ron Paul?. Summary sheet on Ron Paul and his political program in view of the U.S. presidential election of 2008 and why the Movimento Libertario shares his policy proposals.
  54. Transform the Europe in Swiss! by Giovanni Bonometti. Retrived on May 6, 2010.
  55. We are equal to the prisoners, measured time to see who are our children Il Giorno, by Magda Biglia, Retrieved on September 29, 2009.
  56. Stop subscription with a recommendation and 5.16 euro Il Giornale, by Felice Manti. Retrieved on September 27, 2009
  57. "I've put them in the bag: so they are surrendered" Il Giornale by Felice Manti. Retrieved on September 29, 2009. An interview to Leonardo Facco about the payment of public television fee

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