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{{Infobox Person
 
|name = Gregory Creswell
 
|name-first = Gregory
 
|name-last = Creswell
 
|image =
 
|image-size =
 
|image-caption = Politician, Civil Rights Activist
 
|office =
 
|title =
 
|term-start =
 
|term-end =
 
|alongside =
 
|predecessor =
 
|successor =
 
|office2 =
 
|title2 =
 
|term-start2 =
 
|term-end2 =
 
|alongside2 =
 
|predecessor2 =
 
|successor2 =
 
|birth-date = {{Birth date and age|1957|02|01}}
 
|birth-place = Detroit, Michigan
 
|education = Michigan State University (PhD)
 
|military =
 
|occupation = Medical Records Clerk
 
|residence = Detroit, Michigan
 
|party = [[Libertarian Party]]
 
|website = http://gregcreswell.com
 
|facebook = https://www.facebook.com/gregorycreswell
 
|twitter =
 
|instagram =
 
}}
 
  
'''Gregory “Greg” Creswell''' (born February 1, 1957)<ref>Edited by WOOD-TV Staff.{{cite web|url=http://www.woodtv.com/Global/story.asp?S=5515221&nav=menu44_2 |title="Information On Gubernatorial Candidates" |accessdate=2007-07-28 |deadurl=bot: unknown |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20071026223813/http://www.woodtv.com/Global/story.asp?S=5515221&nav=menu44_2 |archivedate=October 26, 2007 |df= }}. ''http://woodtv.com'' (website).</ref> is a [[Libertarian Party of Michigan|Libertarian]] politician from [[Michigan]]. In 2017 he will be the first candidate in Michigan history to run in a Libertarian primary election, due to changes in the [[Libertarian Party of Michigan]]'s ballot status.<ref>{{cite web|first=Ruth |last= Johnson|url=https://cfrsearch.nictusa.com/committees/518074 |title=Michigan Committee Statement of Organization |publisher=MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF STATE |accessdate=}}<br />
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* {{cite news|last=Gerstein |first=Michael |title=Libertarians qualify for 2018 Michigan primary |url=http://www.detroitnews.com/story/news/politics/elections/2016/11/09/libertarians-qualify-michigan-primary/93567566/ |accessdate= |publisher=Detroit News |date=November 9, 2016}}
 
* {{cite web|first=Ruth |last= Johnson|url=http://miboecfr.nictusa.com/election/candlist/2017SP1_CANDLIST.html |title=1st District Representative in State Legislature Partial Term Ending 01/01/2019 (1) Position Files In WAYNE County |publisher=MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF STATE |accessdate=}}</ref>
 
The August eighth special primary was scheduled because of the resignation of State Representative [[Brian Banks (politician)|Brian Banks]].<ref>{{cite news|last=Lawler |first= Emily |title=Special election called to replace resigned Rep. Brian Banks |url=http://www.mlive.com/news/index.ssf/2017/02/special_election_called_to_rep.html |accessdate= |publisher=MLive |date=February 16, 2017}}<br />
 
* {{cite web|first=Rick |last=Snyder |url=http://www.michigan.gov/snyder/0,4668,7-277--405178--,00.html |title=Gov. Rick Snyder announces special election dates to fill seat for 1st House District |publisher=MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF STATE |accessdate=}}</ref> Creswell will be uncontested in this primary<ref>{{cite news |last=Oosting |first=Jonathan |title=Bert Johnson’s brother among 14 running for state House |url=http://www.detroitnews.com/story/news/politics/2017/04/25/johnson-banks-senate-seat/100901620/ |work=Detroit News |location=Michigan |date=April 25, 2017 |access-date=April 27, 2017}}</ref>
 
 
 
He was spokesperson and a Detroit organizer for the Michigan Civil Rights Initiative (MCRI) in 2004,<ref name="politicsaside">The program begins at 3:38 . A promotional video plays first. The segment devoted to Gregory Creswell starts at 20:03 {{cite news |last=Strickland Love |first=Darchelle | |title=Politics Aside (With Ward Connerly & Gregory Creswell |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1xofTkaPuoM |work=Detroit Cable Communications Commission |location=Detroit, Michigan |date=April 1, 2004 |access-date=April 17, 2017}}</ref><ref name="detnews-01-13-2004">{{cite news |last=Brand-Williams |first=Oralandar |date=January 13, 2004  |title=Affirmative action backers, foes clash |url=http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?s_site=detnews&f_site=detnews&f_sitename=Detroit+News%2C+The+%28MI%29&p_theme=gannett&p_product=DTNB&p_action=search&p_field_base-0=&p_text_base-0=Affirmative+action+backers%2C+foes+clash&Search=Search&p_perpage=10&p_maxdocs=200&p_queryname=700&s_search_type=keyword&p_sort=_rank_%3AD&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date%3AB%2CE&p_text_date-0=2004 |work=The Detroit News |location=Michigan |access-date=2017-04-01}}</ref><ref group="note" name="DetroitNews">This reference includes a link to search results of the Archives of the Detroit News. Search results contain summaries of articles which may contain the referenced information. Otherwise the full articles are available for purchase at a modest price. Because of the length of the URL, the link may not work properly.  If this happens start at [http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_action=keyword&s_search_type=keyword&p_product=DTNB&p_theme=gannett&s_site=detnews "this URL"] and select the same year of publication as the reference indicates, and place the referenced title in the "Search for:" box.</ref> when the group first attempted to place their amendment to the Michigan Constitution on the ballot.<ref name="detnews-01-11-2004">{{cite news |last=Brand-Williams  |first=Oralandar |date=January 11, 2004 |title=Race ballot campaign will start Monday  |url=http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?s_site=detnews&f_site=detnews&f_sitename=Detroit+News%2C+The+%28MI%29&p_theme=gannett&p_product=DTNB&p_action=search&p_field_base-0=&p_text_base-0=Race+ballot+campaign+will+start+Monday.+Creswell&Search=Search&p_perpage=10&p_maxdocs=200&p_queryname=700&s_search_type=keyword&p_sort=_rank_%3AD&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date%3AB%2CE&p_text_date-0=2004 |work=The Detroit News |location=Michigan |access-date=2017-04-01}}</ref><ref group="note" name="DetroitNews" /> Opponents protested the petition effort and Creswell had verbal altercations with his rival Rev. Horace Sheffield III that year.<ref name="detnews-01-13-2004" /><ref group="note" name="DetroitNews" />  Efforts to get it on the ballot were delayed by a series of court challenges.<ref name="2004 Challenges"><br />
 
{{cite news |last= |first= |date=January 27, 2004 |title= Suit aims to block race ballot drive |url=http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?s_site=detnews&f_site=detnews&f_sitename=Detroit+News%2C+The+%28MI%29&p_theme=gannett&p_product=DTNB&p_action=search&p_field_base-0=&p_text_base-0=Suit+aims+to+block+race+ballot+drive&Search=Search&p_perpage=10&p_maxdocs=200&p_queryname=700&s_search_type=keyword&p_sort=_rank_%3AD&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date%3AB%2CE&p_text_date-0=2004 |work=The Detroit News |location=Michigan |access-date=2017-04-01 }}<br />
 
*{{cite news |last=Heinlein |first=Gary |date= |title=Affirmative action foes delay fight | url=http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?s_site=detnews&f_site=detnews&f_sitename=Detroit+News%2C+The+%28MI%29&p_theme=gannett&p_product=DTNB&p_action=search&p_field_base-0=&p_text_base-0=Affirmative+action+foes+delay+fight&Search=Search&p_perpage=10&p_maxdocs=200&p_queryname=700&s_search_type=keyword&p_sort=_rank_%3AD&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date%3AB%2CE&p_text_date-0=2004 |work=Detroit News |location=Michigan |access-date=2017-04-01 }}
 
* {{cite web |last=Gratz |first=Jennifer |date=August 2004 |title=Director's Update |url=http://web.archive.org/web/20041018115602/http://www.mcri2004.org/update.htm |work=Michigan Civil Rights Initiative 2004 website |location= |access-date= }}
 
</ref><ref group="note" name="DetroitNews" /> Creswell expanded his efforts in 2006 as an outspoken petitioner and candidate.<ref name="detnews-07-02-2011">{{cite news |last=Jennifer |first=Chambers |date=July 2, 2011  |title=Court rules race ban on college admissions illegal |url=http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?s_site=detnews&f_site=detnews&f_sitename=Detroit+News%2C+The+%28MI%29&p_theme=gannett&p_product=DTNB&p_action=search&p_field_base-0=&p_text_base-0=State+to+Fight+Ruling+Against+Ban+on+Race+in+College+Admissions&Search=Search&p_perpage=10&p_maxdocs=200&p_queryname=700&s_search_type=keyword&p_sort=_rank_%3AD&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date%3AB%2CE&p_text_date-0=2011 |work=The Detroit News |location=Michigan |access-date=2017-04-01}}</ref><ref name="letter">{{cite news |last=Creswell |first=Gregory |date= |title=MICHIGAN CIVIL RIGHTS INITIATIVE: Will state proposal hurt women?
 
|url= |work=Detroit Free Press |location=Michigan |access-date=2017-04-01 }} The full text of the letter was posted on the [http://web.archive.org/web/20080513173144/http://www.michigancivilrights.org/freep_letters_4_18_06.html "michigancivilrights.org website"]<br />
 
* The letter and other comments are preserved on the [https://votesmart.org/public-statement/199296/the-detroit-free-press-from-our-readers-michigan-civil-rights-initiative-will-state-proposal-hurt-women#.WOBSM7hi-Wm "votesmart.org website"]
 
</ref><ref group="note" name="DetroitNews" />
 
 
 
He made the [[Michigan Civil Rights Initiative]] the centerpiece of his 2006 campaign for governor, and produced radio commercials in support of it.<ref name="expenditures" /><ref name="radiofile" /><ref name="radioad" /> The measure passed, by a 16% margin,<ref name="MCRI-approved">Land, Terri (Secretary of State).[http://miboecfr.nictusa.com/election/results/06GEN/ "State Proposal - 06-2: Constitutional Amendment: Ban Affirmative Action Programs"] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090410025447/http://miboecfr.nictusa.com/election/results/06GEN/90000002.html |date=2009-04-10 }}. ''mi.gov'' (website).</ref> even though it was opposed by Creswell's gubernatorial rivals and a conglomerate of groups called “One United Michigan”.<ref>One United Michigan.{{cite web|url=http://www.oneunitedmichigan.org/About/endorse.html |title="Endorsing Organizations and Individuals" |accessdate=2007-08-03 |deadurl=bot: unknown |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20061201025742/http://www.oneunitedmichigan.org/About/endorse.html |archivedate=December 1, 2006 |df= }}. ''oneunitedmichigan.org'' (website).</ref>
 
 
 
Early in the 2006 election cycle some journalists speculated that third party candidates could affect the outcome of the election,<ref name="detnews-11-06-2006"/><ref group="note" name="DetroitNews" /> and Creswell polled at 2%.<ref name="lsj-10-14-2006">{{cite news | first=Kathy Barks | last=Hofman | title=Granholm stretches lead over DeVos | publisher=Lansing State Journal | url=http://lansingstatejournal.newspapers.com/image/204549228/?terms=Creswell | page=1 | date=October 14, 2006 | accessdate=2017-04-23 }}</ref><ref group="note" name="freep-TH-LSJ" /> Creswell placed third, with less than 1% of the vote, behind [[incumbent]] Governor [[Jennifer Granholm]], the [[United States Democratic Party|Democratic]] candidate, and [[Dick Devos]], the [[United States Republican Party|Republican]] candidate, but ahead of [[Douglas Campbell (Michigan politician)|Douglas Campbell]], the [[Green Party (United States)|Green Party]] Candidate, and [[Bhagwan Dashairya]] the [[Constitution Party (United States)| US Taxpayer Party]] candidate.<ref name="2006results">Libertarian Party of West Michigan {{cite web|url=http://www.lpwm.org/campaigns |title=November 2006 Election Results |accessdate=2007-08-04 |deadurl=bot: unknown |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070711162806/http://www.lpwm.org/campaigns |archivedate=July 11, 2007 |df= }}, retrieved August 4, 2007<br />
 
* Land, Terri (Secretary of State). [http://miboecfr.nictusa.com/election/results/06GEN/02000000.html "Election Results GENERAL ELECTION November 07, 2006 (Governor 4 Year Term (1) Position)"] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150111045112/http://miboecfr.nictusa.com/election/results/06GEN/02000000.html |date=January 11, 2015 }}. ''mi.gov'' (website).</ref>
 
 
 
==Background==
 
 
 
Creswell was born in [[Detroit]] in 1957. He was a graduate of [[Detroit Public Schools|Chadsey High School]] in 1975 and a ''Wayne County Community College District'' student. He has been married for over 30 years and is the father of two,<ref name="lwvmi">League of Women Voters of Michigan, [http://www.lwvmi.org/documents/LWVGuide06.pdf Nonpartisan Michigan Voter Guide 2006]</ref><ref name="Vote">http://www.vote-usa.org/Intro.aspx?Id=MICreswellGregory  ''Vote-USA.org''</ref> and the brother of a police officer.<ref name="DetNews09-22-2000" /><ref group="note" name="DetroitNews" /> He has one granddaughter.<ref>{{cite news |author=<!--Staff writer(s); no by-line.--> |title=Biographical information for US House races in Michigan (Gregory Creswell) |url=http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2016/oct/15/biographical-information-for-us-house-races-in-mic/ |work=Washington Times |location= |date=October 15, 2016 |access-date=April 6, 2017}}</ref>
 
 
 
In 1982 he and his wife were the subject of an article in the [[Detroit Free Press]] which focused on their philanthropy to 12 organizations including the [[NAACP]], the [[Urban League]], the [[United Negro College Fund]], the Detroit Afro-American Museum, and the Detroit Black United Fund. He said, "I think this bi-weekly giving will be a lifelong thing from me, not just something I do now and then, not just something I do now because times are hard."<ref name="freep10-17-1982">{{cite news | first=Ruth | last=Seymour | title=Now it's their time to chip in | publisher=Detroit Free Press | url=https://freep.newspapers.com/search/#query=Creswell&ymd=1982-10-17 | date=October 17, 1982 | access-date=2017-04-23}}</ref><ref group="note" name="freep-TH-LSJ">This reference includes a link to search results of the Archives of the [[Detroit Free Press]], Times Herald, or [[Lansing State Journal]]. References can be verified using the 1-Week free trial option. Because of the length of the URL, the link may not work properly. If this happens start at [https://newspapers.com/search/ "this URL"] and select the same search parameters the reference indicates. One may place the referenced title in the "Search" box, or select "Show advanced."</ref>
 
 
 
==Political activities prior to 2006==
 
 
 
He became involved in the Libertarian Party shortly before [[Ron Paul]] was nominated as the [[Libertarian]] candidate for President and he became more active in politics when he joined the Jon Coon campaign for US Senate.<ref>Comments at from (1:55) {{cite news |last=Martino |first=Fred | |title=WGVU Newsmakers: Greg Creswell |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=If5WSIcFeGM&feature=youtu.be |work=WGVU Newsmakers |location=Grand Rapids, Michigan |date=September 27, 2006 |access-date=April 17, 2017}}</ref>
 
 
 
Creswell claims to have donated his time, skills and earnings to charities and social causes such as his church and the pro-gun organization, Brass Roots.<ref name="lwvmi" /> He was a founding member of, and volunteer for Brass Roots, since 1993.<ref name="votesmart-civic">Expand the "Religious, Civic, and other Memberships" header to view content {{cite web|url=https://votesmart.org/candidate/biography/38336/gregory-creswell#.WOZOKiGiNod |title=Gregory Creswell's Biography (expanded: Religious, Civic, and other Memberships) |accessdate=April 6, 2017 }}</ref> Creswell continued doing volunteer work for the [[Libertarian Party of Michigan]], including work at its headquarters.<ref>''Michigan Libertarian'' [http://michiganlp.org/Past%20Newsletters/Michigan%20Libertarian%20Newsletter%20Jul-Aug%202002.pdf July/August 2002]</ref> Creswell was a vocal representative of the petition drive to put the [[Michigan Civil Rights Initiative]] on the ballot.<ref>''Lansing State Journal'', {{cite web|url=http://www.lsj.com/news/local/040111_affirm_1b-2b.html |title="Petition on race policy to begin:Group seeks to end affirmative action in state" |accessdate=2007-07-28 |deadurl=bot: unknown |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20040426134255/http://www.lsj.com/news/local/040111_affirm_1b-2b.html |archivedate=April 26, 2004 |df= }} By O. Brand-Williams, Published January 11, 2004</ref>
 
 
 
==2006 gubernatorial campaign==
 
{{main|Michigan gubernatorial election, 2006}}
 
On the eve of the election some analysts thought minor party candidates like Gregory Creswell could have a major effect on the election and that "Votes cast for state's third-party contenders could actually help pick Tuesday's winners."<ref name="detnews-11-06-2006">{{cite news | first=Charlie | last=Cain | title=Minor-party candidates may play big election role  | publisher = The Detoit News | url=http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?s_site=detnews&f_site=detnews&f_sitename=Detroit+News%2C+The+%28MI%29&p_theme=gannett&p_product=DTNB&p_action=search&p_field_base-0=&p_text_base-0=+Minor-party+candidates+may+play+big+election+role&Search=Search&p_perpage=10&p_maxdocs=200&p_queryname=700&s_search_type=keyword&p_sort=_rank_%3AD&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date%3AB%2CE&p_text_date-0=2006 | date=November 6, 2006 | accessdate=2017-04-14 }}</ref><ref group="note" name="DetroitNews" /> The final vote count differed from this expectation with Democrat Jennifer Granholm leading Republican Dick Devos by 534,427 votes.<ref name="2006results" />
 
 
 
Creswell was nominated on May 13 at the 2006 [[Libertarian Party of Michigan]] convention in [[Chelsea, Michigan]].<ref>Land, Terri (Secretary of State).[http://miboecfr.nictusa.com/election/candlist/06GEN/06GEN_CL.HTM "2006 Official Michigan General Candidate Listing"]. ''http://mi.gov/sos'' (website).<br />
 
* Larson, Eric (Chair).{{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070711162923/http://www.lpwm.org/news-1/elections-of-officers |date=July 11, 2007 |title="Libertarian Party of West Michigan: Elections of Officers" }}. ''lpwm.org'' (website).
 
* {{cite news | first=Andrew | last=Wrenbeck | title=2006 Michigan Libertarian Candidates for Office | date=July–August 2006 | publisher = ''Michigan Libertarian'' | url=http://michiganlp.org/Past%20Newsletters/Michigan%20Libertarian%20Newsletter%20July-Aug%202006.pdf | accessdate = }}</ref> His campaign raised over $16,000 in donations.<ref>Land, Terri (Secretary of State).[http://miboecfr.nicusa.com/cgi-bin/cfr/show_img.cgi?com_id%3D513165%26doc_seq_no%3D278412%26total_images%3D36%26image_id%3D2%26old_image_id%3D1%26doc_scanned%3D10/27/2006%26doc_date_proc%3D10/27/2006%26doc_stmnt_year%3D2006%26doc_type_code%3DG1%26 Pre-General CS], page 2, dated October 27, 2006</ref> which was dwarfed by the Granholm and Devos campaigns,<ref>Terri Lynn Land, Secretary of State.[http://miboecfr.nicusa.com/cgi-bin/cfr/sum_pg.cgi?doc_seq_no%3D288501%26doc_stmnt_year%3D2006%26com_id%3D510278%26doc_date_proc%3D06/18/2007%26doc_type_code%3DG2A "AMENDED POST-GENERAL CS"]. ''Michigan.gov'' (website).
 
* Terri Lynn Land, Secretary of State.[http://miboecfr.nicusa.com/cgi-bin/cfr/sum_pg.cgi?doc_seq_no%3D281550%26doc_stmnt_year%3D2006%26com_id%3D512426%26doc_date_proc%3D12/07/2006%26doc_type_code%3DG2 "POST-GENERAL CS"]. ''Michigan.gov'' (website).</ref> but in excess of that raised by [[Douglas Campbell (Michigan politician)|Douglas Campbell]],<ref>Terri Lynn Land, Secretary of State.[http://miboecfr.nictusa.com/cgi-bin/cfr/com_det.cgi?com_id=513346 "Statement of organization (Campbell)"]. ''Michigan.gov'' (website).</ref> or that raised by [[Bhagwan Dashairya]]<ref>Terri Lynn Land, Secretary of State.[http://miboecfr.nictusa.com/cgi-bin/cfr/com_det.cgi?com_id=512534 "DISSOLUTION CAMPAIGN STATEMENT (To dissolve a committee that has a reporting waiver) DASHAIRYA"]. ''Michigan.gov'' (website).</ref> both of whom qualified for a reporting waivers (only available to campaigns with budgets under $1,000). The Creswell campaign spent over $10,000 on [[radio advertising]]. The largest investment was made in advertisements on [[Detroit]] AM Radio stations [[WJR]] and [[WXYT (AM)|WXYT]].<ref name="expenditures">Land, Terri (Secretary of State).[https://cfrsearch.nictusa.com/documents/278412/details?type=scanned&page=36 "Itemized Expenditures Schedule 1B Candidate Committee"]. ''http://mi.gov/sos'' (website).</ref> These [[radio commercials|commercials]] specifically targeted Devos and Granholm by referring to them as candidates of “the two old parties,” and berating them for supporting state-supported preferences based on [[racial discrimination|race]] and [[sexual discrimination | sex]].<ref name="radiofile">{{cite web|first=Webmaster |last=Michiganlp.org |url=http://www.michiganlp.org/Radio%20Ads/October,%202006%20-%20Greg%20Creswell%20for%20Governor.mp3 |title=Previous Elections-2006 Radio Commercials (Gregory Creswell and Scotty Boman) |publisher=Libertarian Part of Michigan | date=October 2006  | accessdate=2015-08-17}} and {{cite web|first=Webmaster |last=Michiganlp.org |url=http://www.michiganlp.org/Radio%20Ads/September,%202006%20-%20Creswell%20for%20Governor,%20fear%20not!.mp3 |title=Previous Elections-2006 Radio Commercials (Creswell for Governor, fear not!) |publisher=Libertarian Part of Michigan |date=September 2006 |accessdate=2015-08-17}}</ref><ref name="radioad">{{cite web|url=http://gregcreswell.lpwm.org/copy_of_Audio/copy_of_radio_ad.mp3/view |title="Radio Commercial In Use" |accessdate=2007-07-26 |deadurl=bot: unknown |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20061207024340/http://gregcreswell.lpwm.org/copy_of_Audio/copy_of_radio_ad.mp3/view |archivedate=December 7, 2006 |df= }}. ''lpwm.org'' (website).</ref>
 
 
 
===Polls and Debates===
 
In June of that year some columnists objected to Creswell’s exclusion from public opinion polls.<ref>{{cite news | first=Mark | last=Byrne | title='American Idol' boasts many voices; U.S. politics should, too | publisher=The Times Herald | url=http://thetimesherald.newspapers.com/image/212467131/?terms=Mark%2BByrne | page=5 | date=June 2, 2006 | accessdate=2017-04-23 }}</ref><ref group="note" name="freep-TH-LSJ" /> Later, in October, an EPIC MRA poll that was published on the front page of the Detroit Free Press showed Creswell at 2%, with Granholm having a strong lead.<ref name="lsj-10-14-2006" /><ref group="note" name="freep-TH-LSJ" />  There were also complaints published about Creswell being left out of Debates that only included the Republican and Democratic candidates.<ref>{{cite news | first=William | last=Prentis | title=TV station's candidate debate misleading, left out 3 parties | publisher=The Times Herald | url=http://thetimesherald.newspapers.com/image/211798319/?terms=Creswell | page=5 | date=October 30, 2006 | accessdate=2007-04-23 }}</ref><ref group="note" name="freep-TH-LSJ" /> In October of 2006 he participated in a debate to which all five candidates were invited, and only Granholm and Devos declined.  This debate was moderated by [[WJBK]] News personality Charlie Langton, and the panel included Bill Gallagher ([[WJBK]] Fox News 2 Detroit), Paul Kubicek ([[Oakland University]]), and Noah Ovshinsky ([[WDET]] 101.9 FM).<ref name="CMN2006debate">{{cite news |last=Langton |first=Charlie |title=Michigan Gubernatorial Debate 2006 |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s8cZDRlEWjc&feature=youtu.be |work=Community Media Network (CMN) |location=Michigan |date=October 18, 2006 |access-date=April 27, 2017}}</ref>
 
 
 
===Running-mate===
 
Creswell's campaign was shared with his [[Lieutenant Governor]] candidate [[Scotty Boman]].  Boman was [[Chair (official)|Chair]] of the Libertarian Party of Michigan at the time.  Boman, a college professor, had run for a variety of offices as a [[Libertarian Party of Michigan|Libertarian]].  He had also been a member of the [[Wayne State University]] [[Student Council]],<ref>Yonushewski, Katie (Contributing writer) [http://thesouthend.typepad.com/tsenews/2006/11/former_student_.html "Former Student Council member vying for the governor’s office"], ''The South End'',  November 02, 2006, retrieved August 4, 2007</ref> had run for the Detroit [[City Council]],<ref>{{cite news | last =Editorial | first = | url = http://www.lpmich.org/news/DetNews_clipping_0831_1997.pdf | title = Detroit City Elections | work = Detroit News (archived by The Libertarian Party of Michigan) | date =August 31, 1997 | accessdate = 2007-08-05 }}</ref> as well as the State Board of Education.<ref>League of Women Voters Kalamazoo Area [http://www.lwvka.org/guide04/brdofed.html ''2005 General Election Guide''] "lwvka.org" (website)</ref>
 
 
 
===Spokesperson of Liberty===
 
On November 19, 2006, Creswell received The Libertarian Party of Michigan’s Spokesperson on Liberty Award at their annual Liberty Fest in [[Ann Arbor, Michigan]].<ref>{{cite news | first= | last= | title=Liberty Fest Honors Defenders of Liberty | date=November 21, 2006 | publisher = ''LPM Online'' | url=http://michiganlp.org/ENewsletters/N20061121.htm#NEWS163 | accessdate =2007-08-04 }}</ref>
 
 
 
==Position on issues==
 
 
 
===Racial preferences===
 
Gregory Creswell was involved in the movement to make the [[Michigan Civil Rights Initiative]] law over a period of several years.  The amendment was approved by 58% of the voters.<ref name="MCRI-approved" />
 
 
 
====2004 Balloting Effort====
 
He was spokesperson, volunteer coordinator, and an organizer for the Michigan Civil Rights Initiative since the 2004 when the first attempt was made to place the measure on the ballot.<ref name="politicsaside" /><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.freedomactivist.net/orgsm.html#Michigan%20Civil%20Rights%20Initiative |title=Freedom Activist Network's Guide To Organizations: Michigan Civil Rights Initiative (MCRI) |accessdate=April 17, 2017 }}</ref>  In pre kick-off announcement, he articulated some reasons he was working for the amendment: "I believe it is wrong for the government and politicians to dictate to an employer who they must or must not hire, just as I believe Jim Crow is immoral and just as I believe apartheid in South Africa was immoral," said Creswell, who is African-American. "(People) assume that I should be for racial preferences, especially when it comes to the government," he said. "As a father, I do not want the government to look at our children as a member of a race. I want them to look at them as individuals and for their merits."<ref name="detnews-01-11-2004" /><ref group="note" name="DetroitNews" />
 
 
 
At the petition kick-off meeting affirmative action advocate Rev. Horace Sheffield III clashed with Creswell after being denied entry to the event.<ref name="detnews-01-13-2004" /><ref group="note" name="DetroitNews" /> Creswell’s rivalry with Sheffield dates back to 2000 when Creswell criticized a protest outside the Detroit Police headquarters, following a couple shootings of suspects by police.<ref name="DetNews09-22-2000">{{cite news | first1=Oralandar | last1=Brand-Williams | last2=Trowbridge |first2=Gordon | title=Cop shootings hurt public trust  | date=September 22, 2000 | publisher = "The Detroit News" | url=http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?s_site=detnews&f_site=detnews&f_sitename=Detroit+News%2C+The+%28MI%29&p_theme=gannett&p_product=DTNB&p_action=search&p_field_base-0=&p_text_base-0=Cop+shootings+hurt+public+trust&Search=Search&p_perpage=10&p_maxdocs=200&p_queryname=700&s_search_type=keyword&p_sort=_rank_%3AD&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date%3AB%2CE&p_text_date-0=2000 | accessdate =2017-04-01}}</ref><ref group="note" name="DetroitNews" />
 
 
 
In April of that year he served as MCRI spokesperson on a local talk show. When asked why ending racial preferences was important to him he replied "As a citizen and an individual, I resent politicians separating us by color. They did that back down South using Jim Crow laws.  Of course they used that for slavery too. And I think its equally offensive and immoral for them to use racial preferences (That's what I call it, "racial preferences") to enroll students in state Universities throughout the state."<ref name="politicsaside" />
 
 
 
After some early court challenges, a state appeals court permitted MCRI petitioners to continue gathering signatures, but the effort was postponed till 2006 due to time constraints.<ref name="2004 Challenges" /><ref group="note" name="DetroitNews" />
 
 
 
====2006 Balloting Effort and Gubernatorial Campaign====
 
While running for Governor, Creswell’s position statements focused on what he called, “racial preferences.” On his campaign’s site he claimed to be the only gubernatorial candidate supporting the [[Michigan Civil Rights Initiative]], and he defended the validity of the associated petition effort.<ref>Creswell, Gregory {{cite web|url=http://gregcreswell.lpwm.org/racial-preferences |title="Equal Means Equal" |accessdate=2007-07-26 |deadurl=bot: unknown |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20061206201628/http://gregcreswell.lpwm.org/racial-preferences |archivedate=December 6, 2006 |df= }}. ''lpwm.org'' (website).</ref>  His position statements referred to [[Affirmative Action]] as “state-sponsored [[discrimination]],” when it set different standards based on a person’s race or gender.<ref name="Vote"/>  He claimed this was the position of the [[Libertarian Party of Michigan]] which addresses this topic in its platform.<ref>Libertarian Party of Michigan. [http://michiganlp.org/Shared%20Documents/Platform.aspx "The Libertarian Party of Michigan Platform"]. "michiganlp.org" (website).</ref><ref>Libertarian Party of Michigan. [http://michiganlp.org/Shared%20Documents/Platform.aspx "The Libertarian Party of Michigan Platform"] "michiganlp.org" (website).</ref>
 
 
 
====Effect on women's healthcare====
 
In a statement to the [[Detroit Free Press]] he defended the amendment against what he called "big lie,
 
<blockquote>"The incessant claim by MCRI opponents that prohibiting race and gender discrimination will end such things as breast and cervical cancer screening, breast-feeding promotion, etc. is "the big lie," a fallacy that they hope, if repeated often enough, will be taken as truth.<br />
 
 
 
MCRI does not apply to any aspect of health care. It is specifically limited to education, employment and contracting. And even within that limitation, one of the provisions explicitly states: "Nothing in this section shall be interpreted as prohibiting bona fide qualifications based on sex that are reasonably necessary to the normal operation of public employment, public education, or public contracting."<ref name="letter" /></blockquote>
 
 
 
====Statements On Post-Election Court Challenges====
 
After the Amendment was approved by the voters, it faced renewed court challenges, and Creswell continued to come to its defense. In 2011, after a [[Federal appeals court]] panel ruled that the law violates the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment, Creswell's reaction was published.  He said:
 
<blockquote>In a free society, politicians should not determine who wins and loses in life. It should be that person based on their merits. I don't want the government being for me because of my skin color or against me.<ref name="detnews-07-02-2011" /><ref group="note" name="DetroitNews" /></blockquote>
 
 
 
Court challenges reached their conclusion in April of 2014 when the [[United States Supreme Court]] ruled on the case of ''Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action, Integration and Immigration Rights and Fight for Equality By Any Means Necessary''.  In a six to two decision, the prevailing side concluded that the United States Constitution does not preclude states from deciding whether to allow racial preferences through a ballot initiative.<ref name="Adler0422">{{cite news | first=Jonathan | last=Adler | title=Supreme Court upholds Michigan civil rights initiative  | date=2014-04-22 | publisher = "The Washington Post" | url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/volokh-conspiracy/wp/2014/04/22/supreme-court-upholds-michigan-civil-rights-initiative  | accessdate = }}</ref>
 
 
 
===Civil liberties===
 
 
 
In his position statements, Creswell said his approach to [[civil liberties]] was based on the belief that people should be free to engage in any “peaceful and honest” activity.  He claimed he would protect civil liberties by supporting [[Civil rights|equal rights]] for gay couples, [[Medical cannabis|medical marijuana]], and “[[right to keep and bear arms|the right to keep and bear arms]].”  He also claimed there was a link between civil liberties and fiscal responsibility.<ref name="delta">{{cite news | first=Whitney  | last=Gronski |author2=Murphy and Eum  | title= Face off: Devos vs. Granholm; Collegiate staff examines the candidates | date=October 26, 2004 | publisher = ''The Collegiate'' | url=http://www.delta.edu/collegiate/oct2606/stateelection.html | accessdate = }}</ref>  He also opposed restrictions and taxes on [[internet]] transactions.<ref name="Vote" /><ref name="Thorne">{{cite news|first=Daric |last=Thorne |title=March of Progress: Conservative Spectrum |date=August 2006 |publisher=''MCC Chronicle'' (Vol. 1 issue 4) |url=http://www.mcc.edu/pdf/clubs/chronicle/Chroniclevol1iss4.pdf |accessdate= |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070928043408/http://www.mcc.edu/pdf/clubs/chronicle/Chroniclevol1iss4.pdf |archivedate=September 28, 2007 }}</ref>
 
 
 
===Economy===
 
 
 
Creswell rejected “[[Planned economy|government planning]],” and expressed the belief that what he called a “[[market economy|free-market economy]]” would create jobs, lower costs, and improve the standard of living.  He supported changing government policies by letting the single business tax expire (without replacing it), cutting the budget, ending what he called “corporate welfare” and lifting regulations which he claimed were “burdensome,” on small businesses.<ref name="delta"/>  He also opposed restrictions and taxes on [[internet]] transactions.<ref name="Thorne"/>
 
 
 
In 1996 Creswell opposed a stadium deal, between Wayne County government officials and sport team owners [[Mike Ilitch]] and [[William Clay Ford Sr. | William Clay Ford]], that would be partially paid for by new taxes, telling them, "Ilitch and Ford are welfare kings! Get a bank loan, like I got a bank loan for my house!"<ref name="freep08-21-1996">{{cite news | first=Mathew | last=Davis | title=Reactions mixed on impact of latest stadium plans | publisher=Detroit Free Press | url=https://freep.newspapers.com/image/99336810/?terms=Reactions%2Bmixed%2Bon%2Bimpact%2Bof%2Blatest%2Bstadium%2Bplans | page =8 | date=August 21, 1996 | accessdate=2017-04-23}}</ref><ref group="note" name="freep-TH-LSJ" />
 
 
 
He claimed that politicians didn’t created jobs but, “…only shifted jobs from the private sector to government employment.” He accuse them of rewarding “mismanagement and irresponsibility” with “taxpayer funded bailouts.”<ref name="delta"/>
 
 
 
While opposing mandatory taxes, Creswell supported what he called a “Tax me more fund,” so those who supported higher taxes could pay them.<ref>{{cite news | first=Gregory | last=Creswell | title=Taxing his patience | date=July 19, 2006 | publisher = The Metro Times | url=http://www.metrotimes.com/editorial/story.asp?id=9446 | accessdate = }}</ref> In his 2016 Congressional campaign he told [[WDET]] radio that he would repeal the [[Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution]] and rescind all federal fees.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://wdet.org/posts/2016/10/25/84053-michigans-14th-congressional-district/ |title=Michigan’s 14th Congressional District (Libertarian Gregory Creswell) |accessdate=2017-03-30 |publisher=WDET }}</ref>
 
 
 
In his position statements, he advocated the removal of taxes on private property, fuel and the internet.  He also supported the privatizing licensing.  He claimed that many licensing laws were “designed to entrap people.”  He argued that people should not have to “…spend more on permits than materials to improve their homes.”  He called for an end to what he called the “abuse of fines and forfeitures.”<ref name="Vote" /><ref>{{cite web|url=http://gregcreswell.lpwm.org/why |title="Why Vote for Me" |accessdate=2017-03-25 |deadurl=bot: unknown |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20061207004649/http://gregcreswell.lpwm.org/why |archivedate=December 7, 2006 |df= }} ''lpwm.org'' (website).</ref>
 
 
 
===Law enforcement===
 
 
 
Gregory Creswell's brother is a police officer. In 2000 Creswell was critical of a protest organized, in part, by Rev. Horace Shefield III.  The protest was held outside the Headquarters of the [[Detroit Police Department]] following controversial shootings of suspects by police. When the Detroit News asked for his opinion, Creswell commented, "The outrage is inconsistent... Al Sharpton attacks (New York Mayor) Rudy Guliani for his police department but he hasn't come to Detroit to do that because the Rev. Horace Sheffield III works for Archer."<ref name="DetNews09-22-2000" /><ref group="note" name="DetroitNews" />
 
 
 
During his Gubernatorial campaign Creswell said politicians should stop "wasting money" on what he called “[[Victimless crime (political philosophy)|non-violent crime]].” In his published statements, he accused politicians of keeping people in prison who were no threat to the public.  He argued that it was too expensive to use prisons in this manner when people had what he called “real expenses.”  He articulated the belief that prisons existed to protect citizens from what he called, “brutal criminals who would not hesitate to prey on others,”  and said it was a “waste” of money and “immoral” to imprison people for what he termed, “unhealthy [[alternative lifestyles]], seeking non-traditional medicine for terminal illness, or trying to relieve the suffering of others.
 
 
 
If elected, he vowed to pardon “people imprisoned for [[medical marijuana]], physician [[assisted suicide]], non-payment of taxes, and substance related charges.” He supported what he called, “penalties that result in [[restitution]] to the victims and the taxpayers” for what he referred to as “[[non-violent]] property offenses.”  He also spoke in favor of diverting more money to arresting those he called “violent offenders,” and “enforcing laws against theft and fraud."<ref name="lwvmi" /><ref name="Vote" />
 
 
 
===Republicans===
 
 
 
Creswell was quoted by the [[Detroit News]] as making both supportive and disparaging comments about Republicans. In 2011 he commented on Republican Presidential hopeful [[Herman Cain]] saying,"Herman Cain believes in the individuals and not the government. He believes in earning an income through work and not through handouts."<ref>{{cite news | first=Marisa | last=Schultz | title=Cain's plan: tax reform, vision and charisma | publisher = The Detroit News | url=http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?s_site=detnews&f_site=detnews&f_sitename=Detroit+News%2C+The+%28MI%29&p_theme=gannett&p_product=DTNB&p_action=search&p_field_base-0=&p_text_base-0=Cain%27s+plan%3A+tax+reform%2C+vision+and+charisma&Search=Search&p_perpage=10&p_maxdocs=200&p_queryname=700&s_search_type=keyword&p_sort=_rank_%3AD&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date%3AB%2CE&p_text_date-0=2011 | date=November 3, 2011  | accessdate=2017-04-14 }}</ref><ref group="note" name="DetroitNews" /> But in 2012 he told the Detroit News, "More than 25 years ago I decided not to become a Republican because I discovered them to be wimps, among other things. They haven't changed a bit. That's why for over two decades I have been a Libertarian."<ref>{{cite news | author=<!--Staff writer(s); no by-line.--> | title=Say nice things about Detroit  | publisher = The Detoit News | url=http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?s_site=detnews&f_site=detnews&f_sitename=Detroit+News%2C+The+%28MI%29&p_theme=gannett&p_product=DTNB&p_action=search&p_field_base-0=&p_text_base-0=Cain%27s+plan%3A+tax+reform%2C+vision+and+charisma&Search=Search&p_perpage=10&p_maxdocs=200&p_queryname=700&s_search_type=keyword&p_sort=_rank_%3AD&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date%3AB%2CE&p_text_date-0=2011 | date=October 11, 2012  | accessdate=2017-04-14 }}</ref><ref group="note" name="DetroitNews" />
 
 
 
==Electoral history==
 
{{Election box begin no change | title=Michigan's 14th Congressional District, 2016<ref>{{cite web |url=http://miboecfr.nictusa.com/election/results/2016GEN_CENR.html |title=Michigan General Election 2016|publisher=Michigan Secretary of State|date=November 28, 2016 |accessdate=March 28, 2016}}</ref>}}
 
{{Election box winning candidate with party link no change
 
  |party      = Democratic Party (United States)
 
  |candidate  = [[Brenda Lawrence]] (Incumbent)
 
  |votes      = 244,135,342
 
  |percentage = 78.51
 
  }}
 
{{Election box candidate with party link no change
 
  |party      = Republican Party (United States)
 
  |candidate  = Howard Klausner
 
  |votes      = 58,103
 
  |percentage = 18.68
 
  }}
 
{{Election box candidate with party link no change
 
  |party      = Libertarian Party (United States)
 
  |candidate  = Gregory Creswell
 
  |votes      = 4,893
 
  |percentage = 1.57
 
  }}
 
{{Election box candidate with party link no change
 
  |party      = Green Party (United States)
 
  |candidate  = Marcia Squier
 
  |votes      = 3,843
 
  |percentage = 1.24
 
  }}
 
{{Election box total no change
 
  |votes = 310,974
 
  |percentage = 100
 
  }}
 
{{Election box hold with party link no change
 
  | winner = Democratic Party (United States)
 
}}
 
{{Election box end}}
 
{{Election box begin no change | title=Michigan's 9th Congressional District, 2014<ref>{{cite web |url=http://miboecfr.nictusa.com/election/results/14GEN/06.HTM |title=Michigan General Election 2014|publisher=Michigan Secretary of State|date=November 4, 2014 |accessdate=December 23, 2014}}</ref>}}
 
{{Election box winning candidate with party link no change
 
  |party      = Democratic Party (United States)
 
  |candidate  = [[Sander Levin]] (Incumbent)
 
  |votes      = 136,342
 
  |percentage = 60.39
 
  }}
 
{{Election box candidate with party link no change
 
  |party      = Republican Party (United States)
 
  |candidate  = George Brikho
 
  |votes      = 81,470
 
  |percentage = 36.09
 
  }}
 
{{Election box candidate with party link no change
 
  |party      = Libertarian Party (United States)
 
  |candidate  = Gregory Creswell
 
  |votes      = 4,792
 
  |percentage = 2.12
 
  }}
 
{{Election box candidate with party link no change
 
  |party      = Green Party (United States)
 
  |candidate  = John McDermott
 
  |votes      = 3,153
 
  |percentage = 1.40
 
  }}
 
{{Election box total no change
 
  |votes = 225,757
 
  |percentage = 100
 
  }}
 
{{Election box hold with party link no change
 
  | winner = Democratic Party (United States)
 
}}
 
{{Election box end}}
 
 
 
{{Election box begin no change
 
| title = Michigan's 5th congressional district election, 2012<ref>{{cite news|last= Thorne |first= Blake |title=Dan Kildee (D) wins in Michigan 5th Congressional District election 2012 results |url=http://www.mlive.com/news/flint/index.ssf/2012/11/election_results_in_name_winni.html |accessdate=April 3, 2017 |publisher=MLive |date=November 7, 2012 }}<br />
 
* {{cite web | title = Michigan's 5th congressional district election, 2012 |url=http://miboecfr.nictusa.com/election/results/12GEN/#06005000 |publisher=Michigan Secretary of State | date=November 28, 2016 |accessdate=April 3, 2017}}</ref>
 
}}
 
{{Election box candidate with party link no change
 
| candidate = '''[[Dan Kildee]]'''
 
| party = Democratic Party (United States)
 
| votes = 214,531
 
| percentage = 65
 
}}
 
{{Election box candidate with party link no change
 
| candidate = [[Jim Slezak]]
 
| party = Republican Party (United States)
 
| votes = 103,931
 
| percentage = 31.5
 
}}
 
{{Election box candidate with party link no change
 
| candidate = David Davenport
 
| party = Independent (politician)
 
| votes = 6,694
 
| percentage = 2
 
}}
 
{{Election box candidate with party link no change
 
| candidate = Gregory Creswell
 
| party = Libertarian Party (United States)
 
| votes = 4,990
 
| percentage = 1.5
 
}}
 
{{Election box total no change
 
| votes = 330,146
 
| percentage= 100
 
}}
 
{{Election box hold with party link
 
| winner = Democratic Party (United States)
 
| loser  = Republican Party (United States)
 
}}
 
{{Election box end}}
 
  
{{Election box begin no change
 
  | title    = Michigan's 13th congressional district election, 2008
 
}}
 
{{Election box winning candidate with party link no change
 
  |party      = Democratic Party (United States)
 
  |candidate  = [[Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick]] ([[incumbent|inc.]])
 
  |votes      = 167,481
 
  |percentage = 74.13
 
}}
 
{{Election box candidate with party link no change
 
  |party      = Republican Party (United States)
 
  |candidate  = Edward J. Gubics
 
  |votes      = 43,098
 
  |percentage = 19.08
 
}}
 
{{Election box candidate with party link no change
 
  |party      = Green Party (United States)
 
  |candidate  = George L. Corsetti
 
  |votes      = 9,579
 
  |percentage = 4.24
 
}}
 
{{Election box candidate with party link no change
 
  |party      = Libertarian Party (United States)
 
  |candidate  = Gregory Creswell
 
  |votes      = 5,764
 
  |percentage = 2.55
 
}}
 
{{Election box total no change
 
  |votes      = 225,922
 
  |percentage = 100.00
 
}}
 
{{Election box hold with party link without swing
 
  |winner    = Democratic Party (United States)
 
}}
 
{{Election box end}}
 
 
{{Election box begin |title=Michigan Gubernatorial Election 2006}}
 
{{Election box winning candidate with party link
 
| |party      = Democratic Party (US)
 
  |candidate  = Jennifer Granholm (Incumbent)
 
  |votes      = 2,142,513
 
  |percentage = 56.3
 
  |change    = +4.9
 
}}
 
{{Election box candidate with party link
 
| |party      = Republican Party (US)
 
  |candidate  = [[Dick DeVos]]
 
  |votes      = 1,608,086
 
  |percentage = 42.3
 
  |change    = -5.1
 
}}
 
{{Election box candidate with party link
 
| |party      = Libertarian Party (United States)
 
  |candidate  = [[Greg Creswell]]
 
  |votes      = 23,524
 
  |percentage = 0.6
 
  |change    = ''n/a''
 
}}
 
{{Election box candidate with party link
 
| |party      = Green Party (United States)
 
  |candidate  = [[Douglas Campbell (Michigan politician)|Douglas Campbell]]
 
  |votes      = 20,009
 
  |percentage = 0.5
 
  |change    = -0.3
 
}}
 
{{Election box candidate with party link
 
| |party      = Constitution Party (United States)
 
  |candidate  = [[Bhagwan Dashairya]]
 
  |votes      = 7,087
 
  |percentage = 0.2
 
  |change    = -0.3
 
}}
 
{{Election box candidate
 
| |party      = none
 
  |candidate  = Write-in candidates
 
  |votes      = 37
 
  |percentage = 0.0
 
  |change    = ''n/a''
 
}}
 
{{Election box majority
 
| |votes      = 534,427
 
  |percentage = 14.0
 
  |change    = +10
 
}}
 
{{Election box turnout
 
| |votes      = 3,801,256
 
  |percentage = 100
 
  |change    = +19.6
 
}}
 
{{Election box hold with party link
 
| |winner    = Democratic Party (US)
 
  |swing      =
 
}}
 
{{Election box end}}
 
 
==Notes==
 
{{reflist|group=note}}
 
 
==References==
 
{{reflist|30em}}
 
 
==External links==
 
*[http://www.webcitation.org/5W8Pi6NoK Campaign Website]
 
*
 
*[https://web.archive.org/web/19990824145629/http://brassrootsusa.org/index.htm Brass Roots Web page]
 
*[http://michiganlp.org Libertarian Party of Michigan Website]
 
*[http://www.lp.org National Libertarian Party website]
 
*[http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/f/findaid/findaid-idx?c=bhlead&idno=umich-bhl-9469 University of Michigan Library Reference]
 
*[http://vote-mi.org/Intro.aspx?State=MI&Id=MICreswellGregory Vote USA Michigan 2006 Election]
 
*[http://www.isil.org/network/mi/ International Society for Individual Liberty, Michigan Chapter]
 
 
 
 
 
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| Others || (Various) || 7 || 1.2% || 1,684,908
 
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Revision as of 13:05, 6 March 2019

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Original Typed Draft of the Hospers Statement of Principles (2017 scan).png

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COMMENTED OUT PDF INVOCATION IS HERE
Civility

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Table in a Table Test

2016 Libertarian Party Convention Presidential Nomination
Gary Johnson Austin Petersen John McAfee
1st Round Upper left Upper middle Right side
2nd Round Lower left Lower middle Lower right
2016LPConPresResultsRound2 Blank.png
2nd Round Delegate Vote Results. Delegate majorities are represented as Green for Gary Johnson, Blue for Austin Petersen, and Orange for John McAfee. Black denotes states where delegate majority was split, and grey indicates states that did not participate.


Table color Test

2016 United States Presidential Election [1]
Party Candidate/Running Mate Electoral Votes Percent Votes
Republican Donald Trump/Mike Pence 304 46.2% 62,979,984
Democratic Hillary Clinton/Tim Kaine 227 48.3% 65,844,969
Libertarian Gary Johnson/Bill Weld 0 3.3% 4,492,919
Green Jill Stein/Ajamu Baraka 0 1.1% 1,449,370
Others (Various) 7 1.2% 1,684,908
  1. https://ballotpedia.org/Presidential_election,_2016